- Difference between כלאים of grafting, vineyard, and seeds outside Eretz Yisroel
Rebbe Yochanan said: לוקין על הכלאים דבר תורה – One receives malkos Biblically for violating kilayim outside of Eretz Yisroel. This is challenged from the Mishnah quoted earlier, which states that כלאים outside Eretz Yisroel is מדברי סופרים – by Rabbinical decree!? The Gemara answers: כאן בכלאי הכרם – [The Mishnah] refers to kilayim of the vineyard, which is only forbidden Rabbinically, כאן בהרכבת האילן – whereas [Rebbe Yochanan] refers to grafting different trees, which is Biblically forbidden. This is based on Shmuel’s darshening the Torah placing כלאים of animals near כלאים of plants, teaching: מה בהמתך בהרבעה אף שדך בהרכבה – just as כלאים of your animals refers to mating different species, so too כלאים of your field refers to grafting one species onto another, and just as crossbreeding animals is forbidden everywhere (as a personal obligation), grafting is as well. The pasuk says "שדך" – “your” field (implying only Eretz Yisroel), to exclude seeds (meaning a vineyard) from כלאים outside Eretz Yisroel. The Gemara relates that Rav Yosef mixed seeds of different species and planted them. He explained that only כלאים of a vineyard is Rabbinically forbidden, but different seeds are permitted. Although Rav Yosef retracted, Abaye disagreed with his retraction.
- כל העושה מצוה אחת מטיבין לו
The next Mishnah states: כל העושה מצוה אחת – Whoever performs one mitzvah, מטיבין לו ומאריכין לו ימיו ונוחל את הארץ – he is rewarded with good, his life is lengthened, and he inherits the [World to Come]. This seems to contradict another Mishnah: אלו דברים שאדם אוכל פירותיהן בעולם הזה – These are the things whose fruits a person enjoys in this world, והקרן קיימת לו לעולם הבא – and the principal remains for the World to Come. The Mishnah lists five specific mitzvos (such as honoring parents and גמילות חסדים), implying other mitzvos do not bestow reward in both worlds!? Rav Yehudah explains: כל העושה מצוה אחת יתירה על זכיותיו – Whoever performs one mitzvah in addition to his merits, outnumbering his sins, מטיבים לו ודומה כמי שמקיים כל התורה כולה – he is rewarded with good, and is considered like one who keeps the entire Torah. Since the second Mishnah cannot mean that the five mitzvos listed there give reward in both worlds for merely performing one mitzvah (and mostly sins), Rav Shemayah clarifies that it refers to one whose mitzvos equal his sins, teaching that if his mitzvos include one of these five, it tips the balance to the side of merits.
- שכר מצוה בהאי עלמא ליכא
The above explanation, that one who performed one more mitzvah than his sins is rewarded in both worlds, is challenged from a Mishnah teaching that one whose mitzvos outnumber his sins suffers in this world to cleanse him from his sins so that he can be fully rewarded in the World to Come!? Abaye explains that our Mishnah means a “good day” is prepared for him in this world, i.e., he is punished for his sins to ensure his reward in the World to Come. Rava answers that our Mishnah does mean a person is rewarded in this world; the Baraisa which says he is punished follows Rebbe Yaakov’s opinion, who says: שכר מצוה בהאי עלמא ליכא – the reward for mitzvos is not given in this world. He argued that if the Torah ensures long life for honoring one’s parents, as well as שילוח הקן, then what of a son who climbs a tower and sends away a mother bird to obtain the young birds for his father, and he falls and dies during his descent? היכן טובת ימיו של זה – Where is his good life, והיכן אריכות ימיו של זה – and where is his long life? Perforce, the promised rewards refer to the World to Come. The Gemara adds that Rebbe Yaakov himself saw such an incident. Rav Yosef commented that if Acher had interpreted this pasuk like his grandson Rebbe Yaakov did, he would not have sinned. According to one version, Acher witnessed a similar incident.